On the banks of the Mun River in northeastern Thailand, communities are still struggling with the impact of a dam that was built almost 30 years ago. After calls for the decommission of the dam were left unheeded, local activists are shifting the focus on the recovery of their livelihoods.
When Pha Khongtham first heard about plans for a dam close to her home in the northeastern province of Sisaket in 1989 she supported the project. Government officials promised that damming the Mun River would improve irrigation and enable farmers to grow rice up to three times a year. Like many of her neighbors in Rasi Salai district, Pha was hopeful that the dam would help boost their incomes and improve their lives.
“They even told us there would be more fish in the river,” the 69-year-old Pha remembers. “But in the end our fields were completely flooded and it became even harder to catch any fish than before.”
The Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) initially claimed it was building a 4.5-meter rubber weir that would not raise water levels above the riverbank.
But when the construction was completed in 1993, the Rasi Salai dam turned out to be a nine-meter concrete structure with seven floodgates. It inundated a vast area of wetlands and rice paddies upending the lives of thousands of people in the affected provinces of Sisaket, Surin and Roi Et.
“The construction of the dam didn’t benefit us but had mostly negative impacts on our lives,” says Pha who became a leader of an anti-dam movement of 200 affected villages in the mid-1990s.
After almost three decades of intense conflict, mass protests and unsuccessful calls to decommission the dam, in recent years activists’ focus shifted to the recovery of traditional livelihoods, environmental restoration and calls for fair compensation from the government.
“It’s a shame, we should have opposed the project from the very start,” says Pha Khongtham, 69. For almost three decades, she has been fighting for justice after the Rasi Salai dam upended her life and that of thousands others in the Northeast. Photo by Luke Duggleby
The Rasi Salai dam was part of a gigantic water diversion plan, the never completed Khong-Chi-Mun project. It was meant to address the northeastern region’s water scarcity, boost agricultural output and produce electricity. But these promised benefits did not materialize.
Instead, the dam – approved without an environmental impact assessment – had severe effects on the ecosystem of the river and surrounding wetlands which in turn affected the traditional livelihoods of local residents.
Before the construction of the dam, the local lives in Rasi Salai were intimately tied to the Mun River and its surrounding wetlands which were used for rice farming, cattle grazing and the collection of firewood, grasses for weaving, mushrooms, red ants eggs and other edible and medicinal plants.
Approved without participation of the public or an environmental impact assessment, the Rasi Salai dam affected the lives of thousands in the northeastern region. Photo by Luke Duggleby
“Our way of life changed,” Pha says. “Our fields were flooded as were the forests where we used to raise cattle; where we used to catch fish and collect snails, the water became so deep we couldn’t catch anything anymore with our traditional fishing gear.”
The impact of the dam did not only make it more difficult for villagers to fish but it also affected the river’s biodiversity. According to a 2005 research report by the Living River Association about 15 fish species disappeared between 1993 - 2000 as a result of the dam.
Sitting on top of large underground salt deposits, the water of the Rasi Salai reservoir has a high level of salinity making it less suitable for crop irrigation. As a result, instead of the promised 5,500 hectares of irrigated land, the dam is providing water for only about 1,600 hectares of farmland. Pha thinks the loss of the wetlands has actually intensified water scarcity in Rasi Salai and disturbed farmers’ traditional water management.
Locals in Rasi Salai have depended on fishing as a sustainable source of food and income for generations. But as the dam caused water levels to rise, traditional fish spawning grounds disappeared affecting both diversity and the health of fish populations. Photo by Luke Duggleby
It is estimated that the dam directly impacted the lives of up to 17,000 people according to information from the Environmental Justice Atlas. Many of them lost their farmlands and, in consequence, the foundation of their livelihoods.
Pradit Koson, a resident of Rasi Salai, used to own more than 50 rai (about 8 hectares) of farmland. But when the dam was built he lost the land that used to yield a yearly income of 40,000 - 50,000 baht.
“If I still had my land, I’m sure my life would be much better today,” the 62-year-old says. Without any land to farm, he was forced to take odd jobs to feed his family and accept financial support from his son who works in the capital.
Pradit received about 1 million baht (about 33,000 USD) for his loss of land in 2009 as part of one of several rounds of compensation that the government launched in the mid-90s after the anti-dam movement had organized large protests.
Yet as many in the community did not have formal land titles, losses were at first not acknowledged by the government.
In 2019, the military government of Prayuth Chan-ocha earmarked an additional 600 million baht (about 19,9 million USD) in settlements, or about 32,000 baht per rai of land.
But many affected locals believe the payments are insufficient to compensate for the dire effects of the dam on their livelihoods and the loss of natural resources.
“I don’t really want any more compensation payments,” Pradit says. “Instead I want my land, my livelihood back.”
One of the early protests of villagers affected by the dam in 1995 in Rasi Salai district. File photo by Samakhom Khon Tham
A scene of an anti-dam protest organized by the Assembly of the Poor in 1996. The banner reads “The Rasi Salai dam destroys the forest and the people.” File photo by Samakhom Khon Tham
In 2011, the Wetland People’s Association was established to find solutions to mitigate the impact of the dam. Prani Makkhanan who leads the association is working on a joint study with Chulalongkorn University to evaluate the economic loss occurred as a consequence of the dam.
This process also includes an evaluation of the benefits the wetlands provided to communities in Rasi Salai. Prani hopes that this will help them to assess the full extent to what people lost and lead to a review of the distribution of compensation.
Prani wants the state to allocate resources to recreate the wetlands, restore traditional local livelihoods and provide public land for the community to use.
“Although all the land is now state-owned, we want the government to allow us to use this land to gather food, use the forests and raise cattle like we did in the past,” Prani says.
Prani Makkhanan of the Wetland People’s Association in Sisaket’s Rasi Salai district. Photo by Luke Duggleby
But even with these new efforts and after almost 30 years of fighting for decommission of the dam, some in Rasi Salai have not given up hope that the concrete structure that upended their lives will one day be dismantled.
“I want them to remove the dam,” Pha says. “Give us back our land and our natural resources.”FeatureIn-DepthRasi Salai DamRasi SalaienvironmentLuke DugglebySource: https://prachatai.com/journal/2020/12/90965
Four protest leaders currently in detention pending trial have been denied bail for a third time after spending the past 14 days at Bangkok Remand Prison.
From left: Somyot Pruksakasemsuk, Parit Chiwarak, Anon Nampa, and Patiwat Saraiyaem
Thai Lawyers for Human Rights (TLHR) reported on Monday (22 February) that the Criminal Court once again denied bail for Anon Nampa, Parit Chiwarak, Patiwat Saraiyaem, and Somyot Pruksakasemsuk, after lawyers from TLHR, along with former Thammasat University Rector Charnvit Kasetsiri and former Dean of the Faculty of Law at Thammasat University Panas Tassaneyanond, offered to post bail again using 400,000 baht in cash as security.
The four activists have been detained for the past 14 days pending trial on royal defamation and sedition charges relating to the 19 – 20 September 2020 protests. Parit is also charged with royal defamation for a speech given at the protest at the Democracy Monument on 14 November 2020.
The Court denied them bail on the same grounds as previous court orders because they are likely to repeat the offenses, and that there is no reason to change existing orders.
Being detained pending trial means they are detained indefinitely until the trial is over or until bail is granted.
TLHR also noted that the judge who isseed the order is Chanathip Muanpawong, who sentenced Ampon Tangnoppakul, or “Uncle SMS,” to 20 years in prison on a royal defamation charge under Section 112 in 2011, after Ampon was accused of sending messages to Somkiat Krongwattanasuk, who was at the time the secretary of then prime minister Abhisit Vejjajiva, which were deemed offensive to the King and Queen.NewsSection 112Section 116lese majesteRoyal defamationParit ChiwarakAnon NampaSomyot PruksakasemsukPatiwat Saraiyaemjudicial harassmentfreedom of expression
The Thai protests in 2020 had three demands: the resignation of Prime Minister Gen Prayut Chan-o-cha, amendments to the constitution, and monarchy reform. After all the struggles last year, the most promising demand is the constitutional amendment. In November, parliament accepted a motion to amend Section 256 to allow an elected Constitutional Drafting Committee.
However, constitutional amendment is also a most complicated topic. It involves many technicalities, and yet it affects so many sectors in Thailand. Public figures and numerable groups in civil society have pointed out problems with the constitution for years, but the information is scattered and difficult to find.
In this report, we have collected as many of their points as possible. The problems of the 2017 constitution include problems over the drafting and approval process as well as problems over content. Some of the problems have lingered from the past constitutions and remain unsolved. Having the information in one place might explain why the Thai protesters have been calling for constitutional amendment.Problems over the drafting and approval process
The constitution was drafted in 2015-2016 by a committee appointed by the military junta who came to power through a coup.
It was approved by a questionable referendum in 2016. Campaigns for a no vote or abstention were restricted, obstructed, and prosecuted by the police and military.
- The referendum added a misleading question about allowing unelected senators to vote in the selection of the prime minister and the 20-year National Strategy together with elected members of house of representatives.
- Before the constitution was promulgated, King Vajiralongkorn asked the junta to revise 7 of its sections even though it already passed the already questionable referendum. His request was followed.
Section 272 allows parliament, in the first five years of the constitution, to nominate an outsider prime minister who does not have to come from an election.
Section 88 allows political parties at a general election to nominate candidates for prime minister without them having to be elected members of the House of Representatives.
- Chapter 8 on the Cabinet does not require cabinet members to be members of the House of Representatives, allowing the putschists to appoint cabinet members of their own choosing.
- Section 252 allows “other ways” apart from elections for individuals to come into power in local government. Even though local administrations are currently elected, the government may make use of this clause in the future to come up with new local administrators without them having to be elected.
Section 107 said that after the first five years, there will be 200 senators, down from 250 during the first five years.
Section 269 allows in the first five years of the constitution the putschists to appoint 250 unelected senators. 6 senate seats are reserved for the Supreme Commander of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, the Permanent Secretary for Ministry of Defence, and the Chiefs of the Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy, Royal Thai Air Force, and Royal Thai Police.
- Section 270 allows the 250 unelected senators in the first five years of the constitution to vote together with the House of the Representatives on laws which the cabinet considered as relevant to National Reform according to Chapter 16.
- Section 271 allows the 250 unelected senators to vote together with the House of Representatives on a law consideration of which was withheld by the senate or the house, if that law exonerates a member of the legislature, judiciary or executive of malfeasance or seriously affects the administration of justice.
Sections 90–91 mandate a Mixed Member Apportionment System for Thai general elections. The Organic Law on Elections and the 2017 Constitution as interpreted by the Election Commission appointed by the putschists, allowed a strange system for calculating the votes needed for a party to successfully seat a part-list MP which resulted in the emergence of pro-government “micro-parties,” one of which earned a seat with as few as 35,000 votes nationwide or 0.1% of the total votes
- Sections 65 and 275 have allowed the putschists, also known as National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), to appoint a committee to draft a 20-year National Strategy to be imposed on future governments.
- Section 279 legalizes the orders of the NCPO, thus giving them political amnesty.
- Seven organic laws to the Constitution allow the NCPO to meddle into the selection process of the independent bodies including the Constitutional Court, the Election Commission, the National Ombudsman, and the Anti-Corruption Commission. These independent bodies have returned the favour by acquitting the establishment of legal charges and attacking their political opponents.
- An anti-coup clause in the 1997 and 2007 Constitutions to the effect that “a person shall have the right to resist peacefully any act committed for the acquisition of power to rule the country by means which is not in accordance with the modes provided in this constitution” is not found in the 2017 Constitution.
Section 31 mentions the right to the freedom of religion but not the right to freedom of thought and conscience. Puey Ungphakorn had proposed that this should have been added to the 1974 Constitution to provide a legal basis for conscientious objection.
Section 96 restricts the right of Buddhist monks to vote. Section 133 says that only eligible voters have the right to propose laws. Laws related to monks are imposed on them without their say.
Section 47 (1) says that “an indigent person shall have the right to receive public health services provided by the State free of charge as provided by law.” The term “as provided by law” was added to the 2007 Constitution.
A clause to guarantee that “a person shall have the right to receive comprehensive and efficient public health services from the State”, which appeared in Section 51 (2) of the 2007 Constitution, is not found in the equivalent section of the 2017 Constitution (Section 47).
- Section 47 (3) says that “a person shall have the right to the protection and eradication of harmful contagious diseases by the State free of charge.” The term “prompt” before “protection and eradication” was removed despite its existence in the equivalent section of the 2007 Constitution (Section 51). (A mistranslation from Thai to English by the Office of the Council of State also added “as provided by law” to this section.)
A clause to guarantee equal access to education for people with disabilities, the poor, and people in hardship, which appeared in Section 49 (2) of the 2007 Constitution, is not found in the 2017 version.
A clause to guarantee the equal right for the people with disabilities to get access to, and make use of, welfare, public facilities, and appropriate aids from the state, which appeared in the Section 54 of the 2007 Constitution, is not found in the 2017 version.
- A clause to guarantee appropriate aid from the state for homeless people and people with insufficient income, which appeared in the Section 54 of the 2007 Constitution, is not found in the 2017 Constitution, which instead combines the state’s obligation to provide appropriate housing with strengthening the family, health promotion, and excellence in sports in Section 71.
Section 6 gives the King immunity from any violation, accusation, or legal action.
Sections 10-14 establish the Privy Council, a constitutional body which the pro-democracy protesters want to abolish as unnecessary.
- Section 15 (1) says that “the appointment and removal of officials of the Royal Household shall be at the King’s pleasure.” Section 15 (2) says that “the organisation and personnel administration of the Royal Household shall be at the King’s pleasure as provided by Royal Decree.” The protesters call for the abolition of the Royal Household by dissolving unnecessary units in the Royal Household and transferring the units with clear duties (for example, the Royal Security Command) to other agencies.
- Section 16 says that “whenever the King is absent from the Kingdom or unable to perform His functions for any reason whatsoever, the King may or may not appoint one person or several persons forming a council as Regent.” The Section provides grounds for the protesters’ call for the German government to investigate whether King Vajiralongkorn governed Thailand from German soil.
- Section 5 (2) says only that “whenever no provision under this Constitution is applicable to any case, an act shall be performed, or a decision shall be made in accordance with the constitutional conventions of Thailand under the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of State.” After King Vajiralongkorn’s intervention to change the draft before final approval, a clear process for deciding the definition of “constitutional conventions” was removed. In a former draft, the Constitution said that Section 5 (2) shall be implemented by the President of the Constitutional Court convening with the House Speaker, the Leader of the Opposition, the President of the Senate, the Prime Minister, the President of the Supreme Court, the President of the Administrative Court, and the Presidents of Independent Organs to vote on the matter.
The amendment process under the 2017 Constitution is harder and more complicated than those of the 2007 and 1997 constitutions. Section 256 of the 2017 Constitution is central to the problem. Under the previous constitutions, parliament required only a majority vote to pass a motion. There was no specification over the percentage of votes required from members of the House of Representatives or members of the Senate.
Under the 2017 Constitution, a proposal can be made either by the cabinet, one-fifth of the current members of House of Representatives, one-fifth of members of House of Representatives and Senate, or 50,000 citizens eligible to vote. When entering the floor of parliament, the proposal will go through three readings.
The first reading is to approve the principles of the constitutional amendment. It requires at least one half of the total votes in parliament (375 from both the House of Representatives and the Senate). At least one-third of the unelected senators is also required to pass the motion.
The second reading considers the constitutional amendment in details. These shall be approved by a majority vote of parliament. If the amendment is proposed by citizens, the citizens who have proposed the amendment can send a delegate to speak in the parliament. If the motion passes the second reading, there is an interval of 15 days before the third reading begins.
The third reading also requires a majority vote of the parliament. However, that majority must also include one-third of the Senate, and 20 percent of MPs from all political parties which do not hold positions as cabinet members, Speaker of House of Representatives, or Deputy Speaker of House of Representatives.
Even though there have been prohibitions against changing the form of state in every constitution throughout Thailand’s history, there has been no restriction against amending specific chapters or sections. Even then, some sections are more difficult to amend than others under the 2017 Constitution.
After the third reading, there will be an interval of 15 days before the Prime Minister sends the final draft to the King to sign. However, the government must hold a national referendum if the constitution amendment involves Chapter 1 (General Provisions), Chapter 2 (The King), or Chapter 15 (Amendment to the Constitution).
The government must also hold a referendum if the amendment involves qualifications and prohibitions of persons holding the positions under the Constitution, the duties or powers of the Court or Independent Organs, or rendering the Court or an Independent Organs unable to act in accordance with its duties or powers.
If the amendment is suspected of being unconstitutional, one-tenth of the total number of the current members of parliament has the right to file a joint petition with the Constitutional Court where it shall be decided within 30 days whether the draft would amount to “changing the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of State or changing the form of the State” according to Section 255.
Thanks to the pressure from the nationwide protests, the parliament started working to amend Section 256 in November last year to remove the specification on the number of votes from the House of Representatives and of Senate, and to set a requirement that the government must hold an election to establish a Constitutional Drafting Committee for future constitutional amendments.
However, amendment of Section 256 would have to pass through the whole process as mentioned above, which would take at least 4 months from the parliament to the referendum. So amendment of Section 256 would be complete in March or April.
But a motion was passed on February 9, with a majority mostly from by the ruling Palang Pracharath Party and the Senate to refer the amendment process to the Constitutional Court, supposedly to establish that the proposed amendment was legitimate. Many saw this move as a deliberate attempt to hijack the process and delay it even further, since the court could take months to reach a ruling.
Even without this detour, it was anticipated that the elections for the Constitutional Drafting Committee would take around a year to complete if and when Section 256 was successfully amended.
At this rate, the process of amending the constitution may last longer than the life of the current government, which ends at the latest in March 2023.NewsConstitutional amendments
A look at the recycling industry in Thailand from top to bottom. Despite its important role in recycling waste in the country, it still faces various limitations and vulnerabilities that are only understood by those on the inside.
The saleng or tricycles which buy old stuff are important to waste recycling in Thailand. The constant sight of saleng and the business of buying waste which can be seen all over the country is proof that garbage is valuable.
According to data from the Pollution Control Department, the national volume of waste in 2016 totalled 26.19 million tons, of which only 4.82 million tons, or 18%, could be recycled. 76% of what was recycled came from the saleng and recycling businesses. In 2019, Thai PBS reported that Thailand generated a total of 28.7 million tons of waste, of which 12.6 million tons was recycled and 9 million tons was plastic. These figures reflect an improvement in the country’s recycling efficiency.
Aluminium cans in a storage barn, awaiting either to be compressed or sold away.
Plastic Atlas, a 2019 publication by the Heinrich Böll Foundation, a civil society organization founded by the German Green Party, conducted a survey of 763 garbage collectors in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and showed that 65% of the respondents earned their main source of income from selling garbage. This shows the economic importance of garbage in several parts of the world, particularly in developing countries.
Even though waste has become valuable, insiders are aware of the vulnerabilities of this occupation, hemmed in by state policies, laws, as well as people in the business themselves.Headaches at the bottom of junk supply chain
The bustle typically seen in a middle-class and student residential area like Soi Suea Yai Uthit (Ratchadaphisek 36) is merely a front for a large one-stop area at the back to sell, buy, and deliver garbage, which is connected to Soi Lat Phrao Wang Hin, home to more than 300 saleng drivers’ families and many junk shops. Along the roadside, one can see all sorts of waste displayed for sale, ranging from glass bottles to old car bodies.
Salengs and huge piles of junk are common sight at Soi Suea Yai Uthit.
Ket Yoti, 58 years old, is one of those who have been affected by plastic and paper waste imports by the Thai government, just like other saleng drivers, with drastically lower prices for paper arising from a policy to import garbage from overseas which made the headlines in 2018 as China stopped waste imports from other countries. The reality of waste imports, put simply, was renting the country as a garbage dump, which affected the environment to the point where China stopped their imports.
Ket Yoti in her garbage-filled house.
The closing of one garbage can in China opened up others in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. The influx of waste without investment in buying, storage and sales, was followed by auctions to take the waste to the factories. Imported waste consequently has a cheaper price than waste from recycling. When supply increases, it lowers the price of junk goods the market, according to market mechanisms.
Chaiyut Phonsen, President of the Saleng and Junk Shop Association, gave the example of the price of cardboard, one of the most commonly found household materials, which plunged between January and May 2019. The buying price for cardboard paper at furnaces dropped from 6 baht per kg to 5 baht per kg. in Mar–Apr and later to 2 baht per kg. in Sep–Oct. At such low prices, traders earned almost nothing after transportation and other costs.
Plastic has faced a similar fate. Chaiyut said that small factories from China had been opened to take imported waste for recycling, but not junk from saleng. When it was like this, large factories that used to be able to sell recyclable materials could no longer continue to do so, and had to ask for waste import quotas to reduce costs in order to compete with the small factories. As a result, domestic recyclable waste could not be sold, or was sold at a low prices.
Salengs receiving supply bags at the charity event held by the Re-users and Recyclers Trade Association in May 2020.
Ket told us in an interview in July that prices had fallen. Previously he earned 300-400 baht a day from selling junk he had collected. But now, he had to make 2 trips to get the same money. The policy to solve the paper price problem was yet to reached the saleng drivers at some shops, as the storefront buying prices varied. Some shops still offered 1.10 baht. Moreover, the debt from buying a saleng on instalments, which sometimes were bought on instalments from a junk shop, was another factor to consider, because many times, the instalment was deducted from the sale.
“[Prices] fall very easily. When we went to complain, they went up only slightly. But don’t think that the increase is the same everywhere. It is not. Some shops raise it by 10 or 20 satang. Others just reduce it.”
“Simply put, are you satisfied to sell to me? If you are not satisfied to sell to me, you cannot sell to any other shop because it is my saleng. You have no choice but to sell to me”.
Ket also said that saleng often had their weight of their goods cut by the junk shops claiming that the goods were contaminated with other material, for example, when selling lead or necklaces, the weight was cut on the pretext that they were mixed with iron. Or the paper price was cut again after the shops also had their prices cut by the factories because they had sprinkled water over the paper to add weight before it was sold.Vulnerabilities of traders
Thawat Krairak, owner of Thawat Recycle, a junk shop which he claims as one of the largest on Soi Suea Yai, told us that business was booming in the past. The growth of Thawat Recycle, which came from seeing a business opportunity by his father who collected waste, was confirmation of his hypothesis.
Thawat said that the junk shop business had been heavily hit in 2019, when iron prices in the recycling industry drastically declined because iron imports from China caused iron prices to drop extremely rapidly from 11-12 baht to just 2-3 baht in the course of 2-3 months, costing Thawat several hundred thousand baht.
Having learned the lesson from the import of paper and plastic and the resulting price mayhem, people in the junk industry consulted each other, which eventually led to a gathering of stakeholders at the Ministry of Commerce.
A heap of copper wires collected in a crate. Copper is one of the junks with the highest prize bought in junk shops.
Thawat said further that, after 11 meetings and a push by the Minister of Commerce, a policy to guarantee the price of paper was passed. The price of paper, though not no better than before, did not worsen. In the beginning, the factory-set price was 3.20-3.50 baht, which later slowly rose to the point where Thawat’s shop could buy cardboard at 4.60 baht and coloured paper at 2.50 baht (data as of September 2020).
Following those negotiations, a group of saleng drivers and recycling businessowners got together and founded the Saleng and Junk Shop Association in 2019 as a channel of news and information about the recycling business, and to register saleng to provide information, share news, and negotiate with the government. The Association has succeeded in giving the occupation of saleng drivers, who had not been able to register professionally, a certain status. Thawat himself was one of the founders.
The establishment of the Association was a noteworthy gathering as clearly serving as negotiators with the government in terms of waste management on the side of capital. Prior to this, Association members were also part of the push against foreign plastic waste import quotas until the government decided in September 2019 not to import plastic waste.Tax: Burden of the recycling business
In order to open a junk shop legally, there are many processes to pass through. According to the Control of Sale by Auction and Trade of Antiques Act B.E. 2474 (1931), business owners must possess one license for the auction and trade of used goods per shop. They must be commercially registered under the Business Registration Act B.E.2499 (1956). In addition, recycling shops are regarded as used goods shops or sites conducting activities dangerous to health according to the Public Health Act B.E. 2535 (1992) and the Ministry of Public Health Announcement No. 5/2538, which requires payment of a commercial registration fee and annual fees according to the local rate set by each municipality or Subdistrict Administrative Organization, commonly known within the cycle as the “socially repulsive tax”. According to the Saleng Association, the tax rates range from 1,000-10,000 baht per year.
A worker at Thawat's shop bringing down scraps from a pickup truck.
Thawat told us that tax was something business owners and saleng drivers were deficient in and did wrong. One of the reasons was that both business owners and saleng drivers lacked knowledge about the taxation system. At Thawat’s shop, an accounting firm was hired to do the job. Since that cost him tens of thousands of baht per month, it was difficult to imagine how small- and medium-sized businesses could shoulder such high costs. The Association planned to discuss this matter with the Revenue Department in order to create understanding on the junk business for the future.
Another point of concern among junk shop circles is value-added tax (VAT), which they have to pay upon buying and selling garbage. The intermediary companies linking junk shops and factories usually manage and pay VAT after receiving payment from the factories. However, some brokers sneak the tax money into their pockets and vanish. Not paying tax also means that they can set a higher price than those playing by the rules, skewing the junk market.
Chaiyut explained that these mechanisms emerged because factories were not the ones buying the junk themselves as their payment system was on a credit basis, which would only be settled every 7-15 days and junk shops could not afford to wait that long. And that was where the brokers came in. If the brokers’ failed to pay VAT, the Revenue Department found out when it was already time to close the books at the end of the year, when they knew there was something wrong because at that time, the factories submitted requests for tax refunds. Many times, the junk shops that sold stuff to the brokers also got prosecuted.A void waiting to be filled in the recycling business
How serious are the organs of the Thai state regarding waste reduction and management policies? According to October 2020 data from the Customs Department, Thailand still imported 8,715 tons of plastic waste under HS Code 3915 (plastic waste, parings and scrap) from 22 countries, with imports from China being the largest, worth a total of 10,038,664 baht.
At the same time, even though saleng trading in junk plays a significant role in terms of waste management in the country, they still have questions about the limitations of price mechanisms. The Plastic Atlas report suggests that using market mechanisms to manage recycling waste is problematic in that when an item has no economic value or is worthless, it will be instantly ignored by garbage collectors. For example, some areas in Thailand do not accept coloured PET bottles (such as green soda bottles) or milk cartons due to storage costs and the long time required to collect before sale.
Tara Buakamsri, Country Director of Greenpeace Thailand, sees that recycling is only a fraction of the solution to the problem of waste management because the production process has by-products like toxic fumes and wastewater from industrial processes, and recycling still cannot completely convert all materials into their original substances. Thus, in recycling, there is something called “downcycling” – a process in which the recycled material becomes of lower and lower quality until it is eventually no longer usable.
“When we look at the impacts of recycling, if we weigh whether recycling has more benefits than not recycling, we have to look at the entire cycle, including the life cycle of each particular product, because recycling is only a small part. If we could design packaging that is more reusable and more durable and can be used more times, we would not need recycling in the first place because reuse does not involve an industrial process.
“Reuse may have a very low impact compared to recycling because the industrial process of recycling produces wastewater, waste, and residues as byproducts, requiring waste management in the process”.A void waiting to be filled in policy
In 2016, the NCPO government drafted a policy-level plan on waste management as a national agenda item based on the 3R concept (Reduce/Reuse/Recycle). The goal is to promote a zero-waste society.
According to the National Waste Management Master Plan (2016-2021), a concrete, effective, and sustainable approach to waste and hazardous waste management involves building the capacity of saleng drivers to manage waste and hazardous waste by supporting a system of saleng and junk shops and of community recycling activity networks and recycling markets to increase alternatives and channels for waste sorting.
Chaiyut said that this initiative had not met with much success. He wants the state sector to be more serious about the 3R policy. If possible, as the first step, he proposed the registration of saleng, like the government has done with farmers, to allow them to get assistance if they get into trouble, as saleng are crucial to bringing scattering waste into the recycling process.
The Country Director of Greenpeace Thailand proposed that the state’s perspective on waste reduction was still fixated on waste incineration for energy, which favoured capitalists under the Pracharat policy, who operated many waste-to-energy incinerators. The solution to this policy inadequacy could come from a law on environment-friendly waste management pushed by the people, which should be rolled out in parallel with the people’s draft constitution because they are related issues.
“The current Constitution may guarantee the peoples’ current rights to a certain extent. But if the mechanisms under it guarantee the peoples’ rights no better then this as regards environmental rights, because incinerators or waste management are not only about waste, but also about resource management, then plans for economic reform and environmental reform must go together. If we look at waste management in a fragmented way, it’s over,” said Thara.FeatureIn-DepthrecycleRecycling businessenvironmentJunkGarbageSalengSource: https://prachatai.com/journal/2020/12/90998
JAKARTA - 24 February 2021: On the fourth anniversary of Philippine Senator Leila de Lima’s prolonged imprisonment, parliamentarians from across Southeast Asia today expressed their collective solidarity with her and renewed their call for her immediate and unconditional release.
Leila De Lima (Source: APHR)
“It should never be a crime to challenge the authorities or hold them to account. This is a cornerstone of a healthy democracy and ensures that those in power are kept in check,” said Wong Chen, a member of ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR) and Malaysian lawmaker. “Senator de Lima’s detention represents the worrying state of democracy region-wide and the rise of authoritarianism, which we must work relentlessly to push back against to protect fundamental freedoms.”
Senator de Lima has been one of the most vocal critics of President Duterte’s deadly anti-drugs policy, and has remained in detention since her arrest on 24 February 2017 for alleged drug trafficking charges. Prior to her arrest, she launched a Senate investigation into extrajudicial killings under the current administration. Her legal proceedings have also faced significant delays and at least six judges have withdrawn from hearing her case.
Most recently, on 17 February, the Senator was acquitted in one of her three cases, after a Regional Trial Court granted her demurrer to evidence application (a motion to dismiss based on insufficiency of prosecution evidence). Her applications for bail and demurrer in another case were however denied, and she remains in detention until the resolution of her two pending cases.
“While we welcome the judge’s decision to acquit Senator Leila de Lima in one case, the charges against her were politically-motivated from the start and should never have been brought in the first place. The continued judicial harassment and prolonged detention are harsh reminders of the administration’s zero-tolerance for political dissent and critical voices,” added Wong Chen.
Regional lawmakers also noted that Senator de Lima’s case reflected a broader trend of harassment and intimidation, not only on fellow parliamentarians, but on dissent in Southeast Asia.
In a report published last year, APHR found that at least 27 opposition lawmakers in Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines have been investigated or charged for merely carrying out their parliamentary mandate. Tactics used were similar to those deployed against human rights defenders, journalists, and other pro-democracy activists, and part of a wider attempt to silence opinions.
“As regional lawmakers, we continue to stand in solidarity with Senator de Lima until the day she walks out a free person. She has now spent four years in prison and none of the cases against her have resulted in a conviction. Her unjust detention must end now, and we urge the Philippine authorities to allow all lawmakers to carry out their mandate effectively without fear of reprisals,” Wong Chen said.Pick to PostLeila De LimaPhilippinesRodrigo Dutertewar on drugsSource: https://aseanmp.org/2021/02/24/on-4th-anniversary-of-detention-regional-lawmakers-renew-call-for-release-of-philippine-senator-de-lima/
A letter from Parit 'Penguin' Chiwarak, a prominent activist, monarchy reform devoter and one among the 4 pro-democracy protest leading figures who are under indefinite detention awaiting lèse-majesté trials after a bail was rejected by the court on 22 February.
Parit Chiwarak and his mother.
Six years ago, you did not stop me when I started out on the path to democracy by holding up a sign protesting Prayuth. You did not forbid me from choosing my own path. You only warned me that struggle might come with a price. I decided that day to accept paying such a price to travel down the road in which I believed.
My decision that day has led me to pay the price over and over again. The price has come in the form of legal case upon legal case and threats of every sort, including death threats. These are the costs I have borne thus far. But not once have you left me to face the cruelty I have met on the path to democracy alone. You always embrace and encourage me, and today the price I have to pay has reached the level of sacrificing my freedom to maintain my beliefs. The struggle now taking place behind bars in one in which pressure is placed upon my body and soul, and and in which suffering is inflicted which does not leave a visible trace.
The feudal dictatorship wants to destroy your son from within. They want to make your son so hopeless, dejected, and weary that he steps off the path he has chosen to walk. But your son never loses heart with the path in which he trusts because he knows that you will never leave him alone on that long and difficult path.
You embrace and stand next to me in encouragement every time I have to pay the price for democracy. Even more so this time, as I heard you decided to join the “Walk Through the Sky” event with Older Brother Pai. This makes me especially happy because I know that while I am struggling inside here, you have not abandoned me and have joined my struggle outside. Because of this, my body and soul are strong enough to surmount the trials that I must face. No matter how long it is, I will endure and be steadfast in struggle to maintain the principle that this land belongs to every one of the people and is not the personal property of a single individual. There is no institution greater than the people.
I want to thank you, mother, for understanding, accepting and providing encouragement throughout on every step I have taken on this path during the past 6 years of struggle. I apologize if the path I have chosen has taken away precious time that a son should give to his mother. But I believe that you understand well that you did not only give birth to a son, but you gave birth to a thinker, dreamer and fighter of the world. Your son’s fight is not only for himself, but for the future of every mother and son in this land. I hope very much that you will be proud that your son is a fighter, just as I am proud that you, my mother, is a fighter.
Every day and night, no matter where I am, I dream of the time when the long-standing Thai feudal dictatorship will collapse and the Thai people will rise to be the rightful owners of the country. That will be the day when I no longer have to go out to fight against feudalism anymore and I can return home into your embrace, mother, who loves me and whom I love the most of all in my life. For now, I will look after myself and keep my soul and dignity as a fighter intact until the day I am released and can embrace you again. Our family will be warm, happy and together, as every family in Thailand should be.
Before long, the son who has left you will return,
Love and miss you the most,
Zone 2, Cell 7
Bangkok Remand Prison
23 February 2021NewsParit ChiwarakMonarchy reformStudent protest 2020pro-democracy protest 2021
Floods: Persons with disabilities and dealing with the 2011 flood, and new waves of floods in the future
Article by Kotcharak Kaewsurach
Cover picture by Kittiya On-in
“It is said that people with disabilities are the last to be thought of compared to what happens. Ask if it is like that in the various plans that are drawn up. Disabled people are like any other people; the plans focus on the reactive and being helped. That help did not recognize their needs.”
In 2011, Thailand faced the most severe flood in its history. Information from the National Hydroinformatics and Climate Data Centre, Hydro-Informatics Institute (Public Organization) thaiwater.net, set the damages from the flood: a total of 65 provinces were affected with 657 deaths, 3 missing, 4,039,459 households and 13,425,869 people affected, 2,329 houses destroyed, 96,833 houses partly damaged, and 11.20 million rai of agricultural land and 13,961 roads damaged.
Although there are no figures to indicate how many people out of the entire population faced flooding that year, it is still enough to know that disabled people at that time faced difficulties to a greater or lesser degree, including aid and evacuation which were not comprehensive, and improper care. Disabled people had difficulty in adapting to deal with the situation.
Even though up to today there have been no other floods as big as the one in 2011, Climate Central’s report on BBC news points out that climate change has caused a rise in sea levels with the risk of coastal floods. It is predicted that more than 12 million Thai people will be affected from the increase in sea levels. Bangkok is at risk of being flooded by 2050. This includes disabled people.
We went into the field and talked to people with disabilities, rescuers, and researchers about their concerns and hopes, projecting the problems in the 2011 flood into the future, and whether there any methods or mechanisms. Because there have been a number floods throughout the past year, such as in the north in August and the south in December, it is necessary to be ready for a new wave of floods.Pathum Thani: Flash flood area where disabled people could not adapt in time
“In 2011, the flood kept rising to the point that we couldn’t stay and we had to escape. At that time, 5-6 people were needed to carry me onto a truck, both me and my wheelchair and my things. After that I had to go to stay in Ratchaburi with my older sister.”
Wanlop Sali is currently the Director of Pathum Thani Centre for Independent Living. In the year of the flood, he was one of the people that had to escape the flood to a safe place. Wanlop pointed to the level of water that entered his house. Although it was not too high for normal people, it was not a good thing at all for a severely disabled person like him.
Although he didn’t have to stay in the middle of masses of water for months, Wanlop is able to narrate the problems he faced as a severely disabled person. He said that in general, some groups of severely disabled people cannot urinate by themselves and need to use a urine bag which needs to be changed every 10-15 days. A consequence from the flood is infection.Evacuation centres lacked facilities
There were many other people with disabilities who were not able to leave the area due to many different problems, including worry about their home, poverty, having no relatives or anywhere else to stay . The Centre Director pointed out that most disabled people in the area need to stay in shelters which were mostly temple buildings raised above the water levels. Of course, that was followed by the problem of a lack of facilities for disabled people.
“The reason for turning the temple into an evacuation centre was because the temple buildings are raised high, such as the sala kan prian (sermon hall). But if they could choose, disabled people would not like to stay there because there aren’t any facilities. Disabled women especially have to change their sanitary pads and pampers, but there aren’t any separate rooms or a private area. Many would think that it’s inappropriate and the disabled people feel ashamed. They had to take off their clothes and excrete in public or in places with a lot of people like the shelter; it was distressing.”
After the Centre recognised the importance of temples as evacuation areas, they tried to provide information on facilities for disabled people. But the temples did not seem to understand, so it did not achieve much, and so they built facilities near a small meditation centre nearby. They also accepted donations to build a bathroom for disabled people who visit the place, and if something happens in the future, it will be of use.
“There should be a place that a state agency is responsible for. They should organise a place that disabled people can use. There should be an agency which is directly responsible during disaster situations. Where are disabled people, and how are they living? How will we notify disabled people so that they can relocate during floods?
“Another issue is that understanding how to help persons with disabilities is something important. There was a case where someone helped a disabled person but did not also take his wheelchair. A non-disabled person probably didn’t think how important a wheelchair is to a disabled person. I want you to try to think that when you go out of the house you’ll think of shoes. Disabled people are like that as well. A wheelchair is a disabled’s most important part. It’s like our feet that takes us places. Let’s say we don’t take our wheelchair with us and we are taken to a shelter; that disabled person won’t be able to go anywhere, and will just sit there and be a burden.”Post-flood mechanisms
From the 2011 incident, the Pathum Thani Centre for Independent Living understood and recognized that preparation is important. They arranged training on giving support to disabled people during disasters. The project ran from 2012 to 2014, focusing on training young people in schools in districts in Pathum Thani on helping, supporting, moving, or dealing with the disabled, such as helping them up and down slopes, moving up and down stairs, taking them to the toilet, getting them into and out of bed, and on and off a boat.
Wanlop told us that he focused on young people because they learn easily and understand flexibility. Teaching them will enable them to know how to help disabled people in the future. If something happens, these young people will be able to correctly help disabled people. Unfortunately, the project did not continue since the province, which was responsible for allocating the budget, saw it as redundant since the province later also organised a similar event. However, the Centre Director affirmed that both the administrative format and target groups of the two projects were different and there was still a lack of participation in management.
Agencies in the state sector saw that recently there has been increased interest, but there is not yet a plan to manage and help with anything. As a person working for disabled people in the area that has yet to see it, he hoped that at least there would be an evacuation centre that could support disabled people in the district or subdistrict for easy access.Ayutthaya: repeated floods but lacking long-term assistance
As in Pathum Thani, the lack of preparation and information is still something disabled people face, especially during floods. Aree Thongthiengtham, President of the Ayutthaya Association of the Disabled talked about the problems she faced in 2011. The shelter for persons with disabilities did not understand disabled people as well as they should, there were problems with the bathroom and access to the building, there was no slope, and it lacked facilities. Disabled people who were stuck at home did not receive help. She had to take at least 6 people through the floods to the east since they could not stay there. As a member of the provincial Association of the Disabled, she volunteered to be a representative in coordinating the work and saw the problems that existed.
“Some disabled people had to sleep on the second floor and weren’t able to change their urinary catheters. They weren’t able to go out anywhere. They had to stay at home. A province which floods often like Ayutthaya never has any proper preparation or preventive measures despite being a repeated flood and water catchment area. There should already be systematic management. In the 2011 incident, we had to take 6-7 disabled to the Redemptorist Centre, because if they stayed here, there was nothing ready to support them.”There should be an evacuation centre that is disability-friendly
Ayutthaya gets flooded often. Apart from 2011, Ayutthaya has been flooded all the time. For example, in 2017 there were floods in Bang Ban and Sena districts, but there was too little preparation. Aree said that she has yet to see any long-term support mechanisms where local people with disabilities can voice their opinions or participate. An evacuation centre for the disabled has never been created, either location or personnel.
The question is why these things have never been thought about. Ayutthaya has around 20,000 people with disabilities, Phachi district has around 600 people – why is it not done? In the past, we see that equipment and locations were not at all prepared for disabled people. For people with the money, relatives can take them to a safe place. But people without the money or power have to stay in these places. As the state holds the resources, she thinks that this is it the responsibility of the relevant governmental agencies to start pushing for a solution.
Other than her concern for the future, she is also worried about the work of officials in the area because floods or crises in the past have shown that the Provincial Social Development and Human Security Office still needs to perform the main functions in terms of people and issues. The number of workers is small and there are many problems. The people with more roles are local working groups, and the subdistrict and district administrative organisations, rather than the central agencies for disabilities, especially in her district.
“After the big floods, there was some talk in related agencies on how things should be done. There were various seminars. The province arranged to have a flood prevention plan, learning lessons from the problems that had occurred, and tried to find solutions. They should have information and details that will help them work easier when there is a problem. It was a plan where they went into the field to observe at what points there were disabled or vulnerable groups that needed special care. Disabled people should have some kind of symbol. The subdistrict administrative organisation where I am also does this, but I’m not sure about other places.”Rescue and helping people with disabilities in floods
One of the important agencies for rescue during floods is part of this. Samroeng Phonrat and Khanakon Buaket, officials at the Office of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Bangkok, told us about their work in 2011 and the scope of their duties which became lessons for their work and developed into a framework for future assistance, including preparation, approaches to assistance and prevention, from the experience of disaster to evacuation.
Samroeng Phonrat, head of the Bang Khun Thian Fire and Rescue Station, in 2011 was an Experienced Level officer at the Bang Khae Fire Station, responsible for Bang Khae, Nong Khaem and Phasi Charoen. He said that rescue workers’ main responsibility was to help disaster victims who were stuck in their houses, especially the elderly and children, as well as bedridden disabled people who could not get out themselves. They had to move them to a safe place for an agency or relative to pick up from there.
Khanakorn Buaket, Experienced Level Disaster Prevention and Mitigation officer, talked of the work approach based on core principles for rescue agencies. There are many, from essential operational planning, to safety awareness, establishing an understanding the types of disability and the different kind of assistance that each requires, and the limitations of the disabled. These will be analysed jointly while providing assistance. For example, warnings needed to be sensitive to certain disabilities, such as deafness. Symbols, lights or messages need to be used instead of sounds. For blind people, warning signs or images may be inappropriate. A system of sounds and vibrations should be installed. In general, warnings of emergencies must use more than one channel and use concise, easy to understand language.
Additionally, an understanding of disability is still necessary, since it impacts the methods of assistance in accessing and dealing with, for example, the blind, deaf, and wheelchair users, in terms of readiness with equipment, safe relocation methods and respect for human dignity. Khanakorn said that these were the rough principles in rescue work, but all of this requires preparation and regular training.Increase in bedridden patients
Samroeng told us that although there been no recent flood as severe as in 2011, there are still cases involving bedridden patients and they are increasing. The reason is because Thailand is an aging society. There was an attempt to identify vulnerable groups for easier management in emergency situations. Boundaries were planned in a communal process with flags or symbols used to tell which house or group needs special assistance. It is a way of prioritising work. Having contact information for relatives helps make work easier.
Samroeng said that once, there was the case of a bedridden patient who died from smoke coming from a nearby fire, because no one knew that there was a bedridden patient lying there. So it is very important to have specific information for officials to understand which points they must be aware of, not just the scene of the incident, and to be able to help in time.Disaster management plan for persons with disabilities revealed
The Disaster Management Plan for People with Disabilities, 1st Edition, 2017-2021, shows the development of a plan for the disabled in disasters. This plan was created by the Strategy and Planning Division, Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPD), Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS), with the vision “persons with disabilities and their caretakers are safe in disasters” and 3 strategies which are:
1. Develop measures, reduce risks and prepare for disabled people and their caretakers in disasters. For example, evaluate the situation, make a community disability plan, make a preparation manual for dealing with disasters, develop warning systems for volunteers/persons with disabilities, prepare evacuation shelters and centres. The responsible agency is the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, MSDHS.
2. Develop a disaster management system and efficiently integrate operations in disasters. For example, integrate collaboration between agencies and networks in disaster management, set up warning systems, identify communication channels, create evacuation shelters and centres and a safe area management system. The responsible agencies are DEPD, MSDHS and disability organisations.
3. Increase efficiency in the rehabilitation and treatment of disabled people and take care of disabled people in a comprehensive and fair manner in all respects, such as developing manuals on rehabilitation and care, survey data on problems, adjust the environment post-flood, and promote access to benefits and treatment. The responsible agencies are DEPD, MSDHS and various disability organisations.Universal Design should not be overlooked
Sawang Srisom is Project and Planning Manager of Transportation For All and member of the “Disability and Disaster: Empowering People and Building Resilience to Risk” research team. This has allowed him to see more of the problems of the power and adaptability of disabled people in disaster situations.
Lack of preparation was something Sawang could see. He assessed that the policy of providing assistance is still reactive and lacks recognition of the needs of the disabled. The disability management plan for floods is still short on details, especially with regard to Universal Design. He said that helping people with disabilities should not be seen as welfare.
“In the end, Universal Design is essential. We’re not worried about having to go to an evacuation centre. When something happens, we can understand that. It’s just that basic needs should be accessible, and we should be able to use it with human dignity. As for the various methods of help, officials or volunteers should have to undergo training. It’s not just assistance, but assistance in the correct way. Disabled people should be asked about their needs, don’t think for them, or take over. This is the reaction of the disabled.
“Actually, international conventions or laws on persons with disabilities like the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) or the Incheon Strategy also talk sketchily about the principles. But the important thing is the domestic plan which still lacks coverage. It doesn’t look at the needs of each individual or respect the privacy rights of a person with disability. In the plan it says to help the disabled first. Facilitation and needs should also be included in the plan. While there is nothing happening, it should be improved to be user-friendly and efficient. Because when something happens, it will be okay.”Sometimes possible, sometimes impossible – structural issues
An organisational structural issue is one thing that has caused problems for working with persons with disabilities. This was reflected in problems during the flood which showed us why some sectors were able to work well with support plans, but why was it that some parts were still lacking. There had been no attention paid or there were no plans, and if there were, they lacked participation. This lack of information integration between organisations meant that working with persons with disabilities and disasters was overlooked. There was no host or main agency responsible for this work.
“I think that the issue of the organisations of the disabled themselves is important. It may be a structural problem of disability organisations in our country as well the fact that they’re separated into types, not issues. Like the association for the blind has to take care of education, has to take care of disasters, has to take care of travel, etc. One organisation has to take care of many issues. In the end they choose just some issues. It may be something people are very interested in or something funders are more interested in. If funders are not interested in disasters, there would be no push for it. Some issues may be seen as something distant. Separating work according to disability types is also difficult. This may be a disadvantage.
“A finding from research says that some agencies are not attentive to this issue, and we can’t really blame them. Disability organisations have limitations with a lack of resources. When there are not many personnel – 1 person looks after 10 issues – it decreases work efficiency. Pushing forward various issues then becomes worse or does not progress. Maybe there should be a talk on how disability organisations in Thailand should work, especially in this situation where one organisation takes care of various issues and there is always overlap. Like education, which is being done by every disability association, but none of the organisations do it together.
“For this, the Department of Public Disaster Prevention and Mitigation and the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities should work together. I understand that in the past there was no host who could get these 2 organisations to meet, and both organisations have the status of departments. An interesting point is that, for persons with disabilities, there is not much on the issue in the DPDPM. While in the DEPD, there are few who are interested in disasters. What should we do in order to have the 2 organisations meet and bring the knowledge of the two organisations together, which seem to be working separately today?”
This report was made with support from Internews' Earth Journalism Network.FeatureDisability rightsPeople with disabilitiesFlood2011 floods
Department of English, Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok organised an online reading and discussion titled “The Pandemic, (Necro)Politics and Literature” with Arundhati Roy on 20 February (The link to the discussion).
The event was moderated by Professor Verita Sriratana who was joined by the guest panelists Palin Ansusinha, Judha Su, Chalita Setthachayanon and Pattanun Arunpreechawat. The panel discussed about a wide range of significant subjects, from democracy and dissent to the choice of language in postcolonial writings.
However, the most intriguing aspect of the panel was that it did not only include experts or academics but students who also availed this opportunity to look at Roy’s writing and locate themselves in the context of their socio-political placement in it. Sitting in her home with what seemed like installation art of crowded books behind her, Roy spoke in her usual nonchalant style while playing with her wild hair and discussing about the infinite space of fiction, spectrum of marginalised characters in her work, current state of democracy and climate change.
Much like Roy’s writing (non-fiction, in particular) that has “polis” at the centre stage as she invokes a sense of solidarity among the masses, the panel discussion provided a democratic space for all the participants to make their cases. In “Do Turkeys Enjoy Thanksgiving?”, Roy implores the readers: “When will you stop waiting? When will you say ‘That’s enough!” It’s this personalised approach and subjective appeal of her writings that has made her both a literary darling and an anti-national entity to both her ardent admirers and equally (or even more) zealous detractors. It is this allegiance to “polis” that was maintained during the event as Roy didn’t hijack the panel and allowed for a more inclusive space where all the panelists could participate in an equally significant manner. The discussion succeeded in drawing parallel between the ongoing protests in India and Thailand, their portrayal in popular media and the role of intellectuals in stirring public discourse regarding matters of social importance.
Even though a few attendees expressed their feedback suggesting that Roy should’ve been given more time to talk, the panel succeeded in doing what it aimed to do; first by stirring a discussion and second by building a democratic space in the panel which will innovate this kind of receptiveness and openness in academic and intellectual circles in the public sphere. As a Booker-winner for her debut novel who started writing about the issues that many felt should be left to the experts, Roy challenged the remoteness of conventional academic scholarship that is inaccessible for the common masses back in 1998 (or even earlier when she published reviews of the Bandit Queen).
During this discussion, Roy adopted a similar attitude to streamline the issues that are important and create a space that is easily accessible for the “polis” that is directly affected by these issues. The discussion ended on the right note as Roy read out her desire “to never complicate what is simple, to never simplify what is complicated” to communicate to ordinary people what is happening in the world. And that is what this event rightfully did, thanks to Roy and the fervent panelists.
About the Author: Urvi Sharma is an Assistant Professor working in Mehr Chand Mahajan DAV College for Women, Chandigarh. She is currently pursuing her PhD research on the critical reception of Arundhati Roy’s Writings.OpinionArundhati RoyVerita SriratanaPalin AnsusinhaJudha SuChalita SetthachayanonPattanun ArunpreechawatChulalongkorn University
This past year, Twitter has been a standout channel of communication in political movements. There are as many as 7 million users in Thailand and it is widely known to be a space for young people and teenagers.
Those underlined are hastags made viral in relation to Thai political events especially the protests.
At the end of the year, Twitter Thailand revealed that the most tweeted hashtags were quite novel, because they were not only hashtags related to the entertainment industry, but also #covid and political movements hashtags. There were also a diverse range of social issues that made the rankings, such as #whatishappeninginthailand, #สมรสเท่าเทียม (same sex marriage) and #15ตุลาไปราชประสงค์ (15 Oct go to Ratchaprasong).Hashtag culture and political movements
If we look at in detail the use of Twitter to push forward political issues, we will see that after the suppression of the 14 Oct 2020 protest in front of Government House, hashtags in the format of date-month-mob became widespread. For example, #ม็อบ14ตุลา (14Octmob), #ม็อบ17ตุลา (17Octmob), #ม็อบ18พฤศจิกา (18Novmob), etc. The hashtags were trending parallel with the protests that happened over many days in many locations. Before, many provinces also participated in organising anti-dictatorship protests by using hashtags to explain the uniqueness of their local area, such as #อยุธยาจะไม่ทนอีกต่อไป (Ayutthaya will no longer endure) and #ขอนแก่นบ่ย่านเด้อ (Khon Kaen is not scared) (see table).Naming activities through hashtags
Rewinding back to 2020 after the Constitutional Court dissolved the Future Forward Party, Students from various universities held flash mobs to express their dissatisfaction with this political injustice, before disappearing in early March due to the spread of Covid-19. During the flash mob’s heyday, there were # named for each institution, as if they were competing each other to fight against dictatorship.Trending in Thailand and the world
This is not just a temporary phenomenon during the protests. If we look at all the trending hashtags for the year in Thailand, of the first 100 hashtags from getdaytrends.com (accessed on 6 Dec 2020), we will see that 29 hashtags are related to politics, especially the hashtag #เยาวชนปลดแอก (free youth) between 18-19 July 2020 with the number of retweets being as high as 12.4 million. This is Thailand’s second highest trend. As for the worldwide trends, from the top 15, there are 5 hashtags on Thai politics such as #ขีดเส้นตายไล่เผด็จการ (set a deadline to chase away dictatorship), making the top 3 in the worldwide trends.How we got to today
Today, Twitter has become another world that people keep their eyes on and has become an object of study from various dimensions in order to understand the new generation’s awareness. We spoke to 2 people who have studied Twitter: Kanokrat Lertchoosakul, Lecturer at the Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University, who quickly started to study it while interviewing 350 members of the new generation that participated in the anti-Prayuth flash mobs, calling for constitutional amendment and monarchy reform. The second person is Pat (alias), an 11-year Twitter user who started in politics then eventually became a Korean idol fan in the end!?
Kanokrat said the interviewees all identified Twitter as their main communication channel, especially middle school and high school students who started using Twitter before moving to other platforms, such as books, google searches, etc. while university students have several communication channels, including Twitter, Facebook and LINE.
Kanokrat Lertchoosakul, Lecturer at the Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn UniversityLighting the big fuse: the dissolution of Future Forward-role of the monarchy
Kanokrat explained the points that brought the power in Twitter out into the street protests. There are 2 important points:
1. This power had been growing even before the 2019 election and started to move ever since the single gateway protest. Posts criticising the government were regularly seen, but people did not go out to protest on the street since their wants at that time ended up in the ballot box instead. Their voices were counted officially. But when the Future Forward Party was dissolved, people turned to protests.
2. For middle and high school students, a large number of memes in Twitter related to the monarchy greatly excited them.
“Both groups (secondary school and university) ‘riled up’ by Twitter hashtags for a long time, but the things they got riled up about never became mainstream. They came to feel enraged when they got riled up on Twitter so their hashtags trended but they woke up to see that the world knew nothing about it. No one knew what was happening to them and their friends. It’s one part of what made them come out; because their voices in the online world could no longer protect them,” Kanokrat said.
This is in line with Pat who thinks that the turning point which made Twitter people tweet more about politics had 2 factors: 1. The establishment of the Future Forward Party.
Before, there may have been some people criticising the junta, some people being sarcastic about Gen Prayut, but from before the election up to the Future Forward Party dissolution, the level of political talk slowly increased. This is because most people tweeting about politics are teenagers. They saw the Future Forward Party as their representatives who they chose to enter parliament. The moment when what they felt connected to was attacked became the point that made them feel that politics is close to home. 2. The Me Too trend had many people tweeting about sexual harassment. The Twitter space became a place to communicate about social issues, when originally it was only once in a while.
Pat also said that at first on Twitter they argued, “should we get out onto the streets?” That was during the time Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit, leader of the Future Forward Party, went to listen to charges with a flash mob at Pathumwan Police Station on 10 Jan 2020. “At that time, many people said not to go onto the streets, that we don’t have to make conditions for violence. From that day to today, things have taken a 180 degrees turn. Now everyone is on the streets. Any little thing and we call for people to go onto the streets very quickly for people on Twitter. This is a process that Twitter people have learned from facing political injustice themselves. This group of people did not grow up in time for the Red Shirts or the Thai Rak Thai era. They don’t really know of that injustice, but facing it themselves this time, they made a 180 degrees change,” Pat said.Democratization, Decentralization, Participation and Empowerment
How does Twitter impact the creation of awareness and political movements? Kanokrat explained it in 3 parts:
1. A Gateway to Information to communicate with people we do not know and access a large amount of data that does not belong only to our interest group . Kanokrat responded to the echo chamber theory (only communicating with or listening to groups that think the same way) which sees that retweeting in Twitter is mostly from a few sources – it forms clusters. Kanokrat thinks that if one was to compare it with LINE or Facebook, Twitter creates a lot less of an echo chamber. Another point is that it turned users into world citizens because they can view hashtag trends in both Thailand and globally, or even follow personal interests. Twitter is a gateway to information that is broader and more versatile than Facebook and LINE, resulting in this generation being naturally different from previous generations. Pat argued that Twitter is also an echo chamber, but with a different look from Facebook.
“We actually fight with minions on Facebook more often than we do on Twitter. On Twitter, sometimes it looks like it isn’t, but it’s actually an echo chamber. On Facebook, if we only look at the communities we follow, we’ll feel that everyone is talking about politics. If we want to do that on Twitter, it will result in the same thing. For example, if a Twitter user chooses to follow only people in their fandom, sometimes they may understand that this person is very politically active, but the truth is not like that. It also doesn’t reflect how politically active are the people outside,’ Pat said.
2. It is a tool to build political participation in every second. Kanokrat explained that Twitter is an agenda setting mechanism, making any demand a public issue. It is a mechanism to protect their friends who are threatened or have any problems. Additionally, it is also a mechanism for spreading understanding and a diverse range of interests, including those that cannot exist in mainstream media. This tool has interesting mechanisms like retweets and hashtag trends, allowing everyone to be a content creator. Once they can produce content, they can do campaigns.
“Like Anti One China. Suddenly it became known in a few days. The thread function allowed us to become content creators and campaign on issues of interest to us, or we can photoshop images or memes. When there are a lot of retweets, from a normal person we can become a celebrity. This means everyone has been empowered to feel that we can really have political participation, that our voices can really be counted,” Kanokrat said.
3. Successfully mobilising mobs. Kanokrat thinks that the case of Thailand is similar to Hong Kong’s, as Twitter was able to create what is called a leaderless movement. Before, Facebook was used to inform Yellow Shirts and Red Shirts in a one-way communication and the only ones with authority to create content were the core members who were page admins, but now in the Twitter world there is something called a hashtag trend. This enables anyone to have ownership in daily mobs.
“This phenomenon took on significance after the arrest of the protest leaders in mid-October. When they swept so many people away, people started to worry. But the thing about Twitter is that it lets anyone organise a mob. Anyone can raise funds. Anyone can create content or organise their own stages. Others can see at all time,” Kanokrat said.
As for the issue of misleading news or false information on Twitter, Kanokrat thinks that other platforms like LINE and Facebook also have this, but most are not checked. Rather, it is a platform like Twitter which checks fake news all the time and in real time – checked by people with a range of different beliefs. An interesting example is when the royal motorcade passed protestors on 14 October. Within one day, many maps of the royal route were posted.
“Twitter is a platform which has many of the characteristics of democratisation, decentralisation and participation. It empowers everyone to feel that their actions and voices are counted. Everything they do immediately leaves an effect, so after the arrests in mid Oct 2020 the movement still moved forward because people had already been empowered,” Kanokrat concluded.From fandom to movement in the kingdom
Twitter Data of September 2020 (cited in workpointTODAY) indicate that Thailand is ranked as the most prominent country in tweeting about K-pop, with Korea ranked second and Indonesia third. For the influence of K-pop fans in terms of politics, Kanokrat said that if we observe carefully, we will notice that there are more female participants than male participants. This is in line with data on Twitter users which consist of more females than males and a large number are Korean groups fandoms, stans and the cosmetics trade according to Twitter trends, allowing them to also access more political information. This is the explanation they themselves give. Another issue are the social campaigns that appeared in the Korean fandoms even before the rise of political issues. They are very alert to being exploited by the political and economic structure, a result of their beloved idols being exploited by the entertainment companies they belong to and controlled by the authority of One China. These people make campaigns all the time. The important thing is they watch Korean drama series which contain a high level of political complexity, and that leads to them becoming a questioner and fighter.From politics to K-Pop and from K-Pop to politics
Pat has used Twitter for more than 11 years. That would be from around 2010. She mainly tweeted about politics before becoming a Korean groups fan. She told how the story developed. 10 years ago, the first Twitter community that were not IT people were those that used Twitter to report on political protests.
“We used Twitter for the first time in April 2009 when the Red Shirts gathered in Bangkok and continued to use it. In the past, the atmosphere was very different compared to today. Users were adults, but now it is mostly kids, from high school to university, or first jobbers at around 20 years of age, also using Twitter to talk about politics a lot. These people aren’t those that were originally interested in politics.”
Pat made an observation that most people who are aware and in political campaigns right now in Twitter are K-Pop fans and are women. The trends of fanclub members who turned to politics only changed in the past 1-2 years. Previously, fans of Korean groups were interested in social issues but had not yet really connected social issues to political issues much.
“Before, there may have been kids tweeting complaints about school rules, parents, everything else, but no one had connected to show that what they’re complaining about is politics in everyday life. It is authoritarian culture. The turning point that made people start to tweet more about politics is the birth and end of the Future Forward Party and the Me Too movement.”From injustice towards performers to injustice in politics
Pat continued by saying that in Korean entertainment circles, sometimes there was news that made Twitter people angry. For example, female idols were attacked for being feminist. When someone translated the news into Thai, there was heavy criticism and there were people ready to dig up various pieces of information and publish them, easily creating co-learning in Korea fanclub communities.
“The issues of injustice in small-large entertainment companies, companies that exploit performers, fans were already talking about it, but before, no one had connected it to politics. They didn’t look at it as authoritarianism. Recently, someone lit the spark that it is actually politics. Fans have amassed an understanding of various injustices already, so when they got politics as the last piece of the jigsaw that allowed them to see more clearly, they turned to express themselves in politics like this,” Pat said.The opening: ‘aek-hep’
Pat talked about a group with great influence in the Twitter world, that is ‘aek-hep.’ Aek is account. Hep is a dog tick. This is a type of account that is opened anonymously to follow Korean performers.
“They are different from fanclubs in that aek-hep insult everyone. They use bad language when criticising idols and performers. They are rude. At first when hardly anyone talked about politics, the first to start talking often about politics were these aek-hep groups. These groups insulted the government, talked about the monarchy, talked of serious issues. But now in politics, people who aren’t aek-hep also insult people as strongly as the aek-hep (laughs). The aek-hep debuted around 1-2 years ago, but everything developed very quickly.”‘Fanbase’ news distribution chamber
Pat explained other mechanisms in fandom. Normally in any one fandom (kingdom of fans of the same performer), there will be fanclub members or people who follow news about the performer up close and support them, the fansite which is people who take photos of performers to upload them onto social media as a communication channel and to promote them, and the fanbase which is people who act as a news distribution centre, translating news and tweeting all information related to the performer or band.
Pat gave an example of a starting point and finding a solution by people in the community.
“This year (2020), the fanbases started to have a role in tweeting about politics and social issues. Many fandoms came out and tweeted, like the fandom I’m in, which is Army or the BTS fanclub. The fanbase house which is the largest has over 300,000 followers in Thailand. In the middle of the year, they tweeted about Black Lives Matter and also tweeted information about the CPTPP. The starting point in tweeting about politics was Save Wanchalearm. They asked permission from followers to tweet about it once, because it was enforced disappearance, something against human rights and legal principles. This tweet sparked a discussion in the fandom – if it was something that a fanbase should speak about or not, because normally a fanbase doesn’t tweet about anything else at all, like an official organisation account. There were people who criticised them for tweeting about it. They didn’t want to know about politics in this tweet. Can’t they have a no-stress area? In the end, the admin ran a poll asking if they should tweet about the political issues they think are important to everyone or not. Most people voted to tweet.” After that, many other fanbases started to tweet about politics.IOs disguising themselves in fandoms
Pat talked about the attempt of the IO (Information Operations). Previously, there were IOs who tried to disguise themselves as Korean fans to rile up people through tweets.
“But it was so obvious. Their bio said they liked BTA, probably a typo for BTS, and their profile picture was of Way V, which is another band which also had 7 members like BTS. I guess they were briefed to get a picture of a 7-person band but didn’t know which band was BTS. The picture was also of very low quality. They tried to get people riled up about this and that. People responded, saying you don’t have to, we can tell. The community can really tell if it is an outsider trying to disguise themselves. Their speech is not the same, like how we call CDs ‘bums’ (albums). Outsiders wouldn’t call them bums (laughs).”
“Any one fandom is a subculture in K-pop which is not like other fanclubs. They have their own uniqueness. It’s not just an IO disguising them as fans and fanclubs can tell, but if an A Fandom member disguises themself as a B Fandom member, we can also tell (laughs).”Reactions from the state, IO and the response of the pro-government-monarchy group
When Twitter is clearly a space to communicate-the mobilization of resources for a political fight, it is not only the pro-democracy side or anti-government side that uses it skilfully, the pro-govrnment or pro-state side also uses this tool. An interesting phenomenon is the IO (Information Operations), that were caught by the Move Forward Party and Progressive Movement that came out and disclosed its operational structure along with official documents that were leaked, including a large number of duplicate tweets.
In late October 2020, a group of Twitter users tweeted images with the same caption and the same hashtags. Some of their messages were changed slightly. All the tweets were about the monarchy. For example, a tweet with an image of King Rama IX was tweeted repeatedly, “Ever seen I was born 40 years ago, I saw His Majesty working all the time, exhausted from working for the people, but why is it that the children are insulting His Majesty this much? Is this what they call the new generation? #28ตุลาปกป้องสถาบัน (28 Oct protect the monarchy).”
Examples of tweets repeating the same mistake at the '44 years' part.
On 24 Oct 2020, an image and caption was repeatedly tweeted: “Before we were only #quietpower but now it’s time to come out and protect the monarchy for our father. May his Majesty be our idol, be behind our victory #ในหวงสู้สู้ (fight, fight, His Majesty)”. An observation is that these tweets have the same typos. At the same time, a Facebook user published a screengrab of a LINE group conversation that seems to be an order for a tweet-hashtag operation to protect the monarchy on Twitter to an agency which is also believed to be a state agency.Twitter and IO management
The obviousness of state officials or the army mobilising personnel to use Twitter in the political fight became even more obvious; in early October 2020, Twitter disclosed a report, having found users that are part of information operations from the state sectors of many countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Cuba, Russa and Thailand. Additionally, they suspended 1,594 of these user accounts, claiming that they violated Twitter policies on “platform manipulation”.
Details from investigations and analyses by the Stanford Internet Observatory (SIO) were also revealed. In suspending these accounts, 926 of them were IOs of the Thai army. This is considered the highest number of fake accounts to be suspended this time. However, in a transparency report by Twitter, it was shown that there was a larger suspension of 23,750 Chinese IOs in June 2020, which were pro- government and had created deception related to politics between China and Hong Kong.
Later, in late November 2020, Reuters (cited in posttoday), reported that Twitter suspended the account @jitarsa_school which is related to a pro-monarchy group. This @jitarsa_school account is related to a royally-sponsored school for volunteering established in September. It had around 48,000 followers before being suspended by a Twitter official, stating that it violated Twitter rules on spam and platform manipulation.
Twitter users, including political groups, have regularly come out to expose these things. For example, Blognone website’s report on 28 Dec 2020 stated that the Twitter user @SaraAyanaputra disclosed a proposal document of the army showing the army’s IO working process which is coordinated through two apps which are Twitter Broadcast and Free Messenger. The army admitted that the slide presentation was real, saying that it was the army learning “to understanding online social media efficiently and appropriately” and the use of the two applications from S-Planet Co., Ltd. incurred no expenses.
The text of the slides talks about the coordination process in tweeting the same things by the army’s workforce of 17,000 people. It indicates the duty times, the division of responsibility of grey/black groups in tweet-attacks on the opposition, and the procedure to avoid being banned by Twitter. Later the army spokesperson did not speak of the grey/black teams in the slides but only said that it was the preparation of a PR department to distribute positive news, such as activities revering the monarchy, creating an image/reputation, army missions and assistance to civilians. The application is also open for anyone to download, meaning that the army did not have any intention to conceal this. At the same time, if an ill-intentioned person posted distorted or fake information (grey or black coloured information), they would investigate and hurry to promptly publish the truth in online social media.Evaluation of IO, the slick version
Pat analysed that those that are clearly pro-mob or pro-state will not change back and forth. Having or not having an IO does not make them change their minds, while those standing in the middle do not pay much attention to these things.
“An IO is actually an echo chamber of the other side. It will make people on that side feel like they have a lot of comrades, make them feel secure, like they have friends. Someone asked if the IO become more careful, using more artifice, would they be scarier? No matter what the IO look like, we have to fight them anyway. If they use fake news to attack us, whether it’s obvious or very convincing, we still have to fight them. We still also have to work on the thoughts of these people standing in the middle ground, so I don’t feel really worried about how if IO come from some agency, they will get scarier.”
“When in war, we fight. When in peace, we fight each other. In the fandoms it’s also like this. It’s very normal. It’s a culture that the IO doesn’t know much about. They don’t have to instigate to waste our time. We’re used to fighting each other, correcting each other, or examining each other all the time. We’re used to hating each other’s faces. If you’re asking if IO joined in or not, they did come. But when they came, we all knew they were IO. Then everyone is like, you go play somewhere else. We’re fighting here,” a Korean idol fan that has used Twitter for more than 11 years concluded.FeatureIn-DepthtwitterTweetfreedom of expressionKanokrat LertchoosakulNetizenK-POPKorean fandomSource: https://prachatai.com/journal/2021/01/91178